In the video embedded below, Dr. Duncan Ross, PhD and founder of Kimera Labs, addresses an audience a few days ago regarding basic exosome biology and some specifics about his process and the directions he sees the field going. Since I got some positive remarks about my annotation/bookmarking of the previous video that was subsequently pulled from YouTube, I will do this again…
At 1:30, Duncan Ross (DR) shows what exosomes look like under his $50k microscope
At 1:45, he explains what is inside bone marrow. In 60cc of fat, there are 150k MSCs, in 60cc of bone marrow, there are 50K MSCs.
2:50 explains his interest of studying immunology and cell biology.
3:45 The explanation of bone marrow transplantation and the problem of HLA mismatch
4:25 The cells that are transplanted are rapidly cleared by the host
4:45 Graft vs. Host (GVHD) disease as a model of inflammation. DR states that regulatory Tcells are the best at controlling GVHD but they are rare and hard to isolate…hence the use of MSCs
6:00 MSCs produce IL-10 and TGF beta3- the best anti-inflammatory mediators that transform activated Tcells into Treg types
6:30 a slide showing MSCs as pericytes, or cells that reside on blood vessels
7:30 Mesoblast company proved GVHD requires 14M MSCs to suppress. Hence he started on a quest to expand patient MSC to 7M cells. This yielded 60-80% improvement for COPD but after four treatments, they were refractory.
9:00-11:00 The epiphany that using MSCs from an older individual is not as effective as using MSCs from an 18-yo individual. The serum from a young person worked to stimulate the 70-yo cells He thought that proteins in the serum were not likely to survive for a long time…hence the plasma
10:50 Allogeneic (non-self) MSCs are phenotypically older. They also aren’t fully resistant to host vs. graft but rather are evasive because of lack of Major Histocompatibility Antigens (class 2)
11:30 There is a dose-response relationship with allogeneic MSC cells. The more the better. Unfortunately, there is immune rejection. Unfortunately, the use of self-MSC in significant numbers takes time to produce and are not ready “off-the-shelf” for unexpected events, like burns or trauma. He mentions that MSCs are a “351 HCTP -human cell tissue product” meaning a biologic substance that are not FDA approved for human use in disease prevention and treatment.
14:15 FDA inspection of the Kimera lab concluded that this was not a cell-based therapeutic and there were not concerns
14:40 Explanation of the size, composition, and functions of exosomes in facilitating immediate behavior change
15:00 Exosomes are in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, and milk. Cow milk causes us to express cow proteins.
15:35 DR uses an olive tree, olives, and olive oil as an extended metaphor for his production process. He notes that changing the growth conditions As for types of olives, he states he has 9 types of exosomes from different cell types.
16:35 The production process described: testing, extraction and expansion of MSCs under specific conditions, collecting the medium and then filtering after ultracentrifugation. The final product is tested for composition and to rule out infections before being released from quarantine.
18:10 Amniotic fluid contains exosomes but is is hard to purify them. The contents of these exosomes differ from those derived from MSCs
19:40 What’s inside an exosome? Messenger RNA, microRNA, proteins.
20:25 Why is messenger RNA is more effective than protein therapy? Because of copy number and instability. mRNA can produce many copies of the protein.
21:30 Exosomes are taken up immediately. They are sterile, can be concentrated, are not rejected by the immune system (no HLA), can be frozen for up to 6 months.
22:45 Freezing is better than cryopreservation, which uses DMSO and causes sulfur reactions.
23:10 The medium (fluid surround cells that contain exosomes) is as effective as cells in treating a rat model of emphysema.
23:35 DR argues that cells may live for a week in a host, but that in a lab environment, the secretions can be continuously harvested without an end point.
24:05 MSCs exosomes encourage angiogenesis (new blood vessels)
24:20 A study by Liu showed that rabbit cartilage could be repaired using MSC exosomes and a gel matrix
25:20 Use of matrices in joint regeneration discussed. Fat, Platelet-rich plasm, platelet-rich fibrin matrix, and hylauronic acid. He states this provides “a structure for the cells to hold onto”.
25:50 2014 case of his friend’s severe facial burns healed with exosomes 3x/d for seven days. He argues the result was a direct result of the exosomes.
27:15 Injection of one knee can cause relief in both by reducing inflammation.
27:30 Children’s stem cells produce ~300 growth factors. Our adult ones only product about 100 and there is very little regenerative capacity from our MSC-produced
28:30 A deep dive into some of the specific protein contents of his MSCs exosomes.
29:15 DR proposes that combination of matrix, MSC exosomes, AND amniotic fluid-derived exosomes might be the most effective in joint regeneration because of the absence of pain conferred by amniotic-fluid derived epithelial-line exosomes.
30:40 DR argues that the methylation changes that occur are late onset and account for the “8-month later” effect in regenerative medicine.
31:50 If exosomes promote growth, cell division, and new blood vessels, would it encourage cancer? An experiment of using MSC exosomes in a blood cancer showed the opposite. The tumor stopped growing; DR believes the cells resumed the ability to express tumor supressor genes after exosome
33:55 Alopecia (loss of hair) as an autoimmune condition in women is highly effective
33:10 Future directions: IND (investigation of facial nerve pain), custom exosomes.
I refer you to my previous post about taking exosomes: http://www.rechargebiomedical.com/my-personal-experience-using-exosomes/
It is day 10 after intranasal and day after IV injection. I would say that my posture, muscle tone, sleep requirement, libido, and knee clicking are all improved. I also retain voluntary ASMR capability. And I believe I look younger as well as trimmer.
If you are interested in learning more. please contact me to be put on a growing interest list. I am now fully stocked with the supplies needed to provide this service by a variety of routes, anywhere in the lower 48 states.