Bacteria are simple and all their functions are limited to that one tiny cell. In contrast, Eukaryotes (those with nuclei) are complex and each cell has many specialized organelles that perform different functions compartmentalized by membranes.
Bacteria have a circular DNA that is small and easy to copy. Each bacterium is like a simple robot with a shopping list of things it can do. The robots can overrun but they can’t organize themselves into organs, let alone larger creatures.
In contrast, eukaryotic cells, which make up ALL plants and animals, have hugely convoluted, linear DNA, comprising many chromosomes protected by a nuclear membrane. Unlike a robot with the list, they are like a person bearing the complete library (thousands of genes for proteins and RNA) that the entire society (the organism) requires to function. Although that particular cell may only actively need a fraction of the genes, they carry the entire library.
As you know, Darwin’s evolutionary theory emphasized competitive reproductive advantage created by mutations in the creation of species. Ironically, the biggest evolutionary inflections involved two cooperative milestones known as “Symbiogenesis” (the creation of new life from combination of species and the fictional name of the biotech giant in my new graphic novel, Maximum Lifespan.)
Some scientists believe that Eukaryotes were created when DNA viruses with membranes were incorporated into primitive bacteria, forming the first nucleated cells.
Next, those primitive single cell eukaryotes, the Protozoa, incorporated bacteria into their cytoplasm to produce energy, such as mitochondria for animals, and chloroplasts for plants.
But there are three problems with carrying huge DNA libraries:
- errors: 50 billion cell divisions daily, each requiring 6 billion base pairs to be copied, yielding 300 quintillion chances for transcription errors
- non-circular DNA shortens each time it divides leading to REPLICATIVE SENESCENCE.
Click here to read Carolyn Abraham’s article and wonderful video explaining this process:
So really, we exist only because long ago, little bacteria, the mitochondria, were given a nice place to live inside our cells. In exchange for that cozy hideaway, those bacteria generate our fuel. But like “Manuchrian Candidates,” they can also morph into assassins at the end of life, as we’ll describe in a future blog posting.
To learn how TA-65 is reversing chromosome deterioration for hundreds of pioneers and making us younger, go to http://www.rechargebiomedical.com/