The fact that progeria-affected kids have undeniable biological aging despite young epigenetic and chronological ages implies that telomerpathies that drive them are still the most robust explanation for aging globally
The reason telomerase increases the aging clock is because the lineage of incidental methylation increases. The longer a stem cell (and its incidental methylation) have existed- the dustier the top of the fridge.
In my search for wisdom about aging, I maintain that the primary cause is telomere shortening. This does not mean that methylation, signaling with stem cell produced vesicles (like packages with a purpose) don’t play a secondary role.
A study out of Princeton looking at 1,567 9-yo children found that for each hour less than the recommended 9-11 hours of sleep, they averaged 1.5% shorter telomeres.
What if the stem cells, on a much slower level, are also undergoing gradual genetic mutations? That is the invisible elephant in the room.