Since 1960, Charles has owned a Siamese cat named “Blue”. The first three cats were good for over fifty years of companionship but this fourth “Blue” is an actual clone of Blue #3.
Researchers looked at umbilical cord blood samples from 54 newborns and found that lower Socioeconomic status and education were highly correlated with shorter newborn telomeres.
If we assume 3 billion base pairs, 1/100,000 transcription errors, but a high rate of intra-transcriptional proofreading, we get that figure down to about 0.3 mutations (wrong letter substitution) per cell division.
Most people don’t know there was a competing and long-deprecated alternative theory to Darwinism called Lamarckism. It suggested that individuals can direct their own phenotype (appearance and function) based on choices and behaviors. This idea that was left largely on the dust bin of scientific history in the 1930’s, has now been rehabilitated by the field of epigenetics in a big way.