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Exosomes 31: Leg Swelling

General Disclaimer: This blog is for informational purposes only. It is not an advertisement for exosomes. Use of exosomes has not been FDA-approved for prevention nor treatment of any disease condition.  Anecdotes provided do not constitute scientific proof and all patients were treated in the context of a fully informed consent and patient-physician relationship.

Exosomes 31: Leg Swelling

Chances are you know someone with foot and leg swelling. In this blog I present some cases of resolution of leg swelling after use of exosomes and will explain what could be causing this improvement.

CASE 1: 

MS is an 84 yo man with years of severe pitting lower extremity edema. His history is notable for hypertension, diabetes, remote history of stroke, and carotid artery stenosis. He requested exosome treatment for rejuvenation and to possibly aid his lower extremity swelling. As you can see in this picture, the pressing of my thumbs into both lower legs caused deep pitting (indentation) of the edematous legs. You can also see bullae (blood blisters) of his left leg c/w poor circulation and/or an autoimmune condition. He received 6B IV MSC exosomes and these are the photos before, after 4 days, and after 2 weeks:


CASE 2: 

WZ is an 80-yo man who stands constantly and has mild to moderate lower extremity edema and mild stasis dermatitis. (For more info on that condition, see blog 23 which included an 86-yo woman whose leg edema also resolved by post-exosome day 4 with a gradual resolution in her leg rashes.)  He requested exosome treatment for painful osteoarthitic knees and was actively considering bilateral knee replacement. In Nov of 2019, he received 6B MSC exosomes with 3ml Durolane divided between both knees. Interestingly, no IV treatment was given so the exosomes must have “leaked” out of the knees and improved the circulation and rash as an unintended side effect. 


His pain was essentially gone but he requested another treatment when I was recently in Hawaii for “insurance”. Interestingly his digestion has always been a problem since a case of ileitis 52 years ago combined with extensive small bowel resection. He immediately noted that his digestion was improved and was so happy that he requested repeat IV treatments only two days later for himself and his wife.

So why did these two patients have such dramatic improvement in lower extremity edema? We can only speculate that one or all of the following are playing a role. Allow me to explain what causes this universal condition as we age or become unwell.

Foot and leg swelling is caused by four things generally: hydrostatic forces, oncotic forces, vascular permeability, and lymphatic drainage. It is caused by excess accumulation of fluid in the tissue spaces outside of your blood vessels  (i.e. arteries, capillaries, and veins) and inside your skin. Physicians call it “pitting” when we can press with a finger and instead of the skin bouncing back, it indents like overripe fruit (see pictures below). We will tackle them reverse order:

Lymphatic System

The fluid in the tissues is normally drained by something known as the lymphatic system. The image shows that system and is is also endowed with “nodes” that swell when there is infection or some other inflammatory process in an area of the body.

If the lymph nodes are clogged by cancer or parasites like those that cause “elephantiasis” then the swelling can be especially significant in the area of the body drained by the clogged lymphatic system.

The vessels of the lymphatic system might be experiencing rapid reprogramming and/or regeneration from exosomes that results in improved drainage of the legs in these patients.

Vascular Permeability

The cells comprising the blood vessels are designed to be “water tight” but they can also become more permeable when needed. Histamine and bradykinin are examples of inflammatory signaling molecules that increase the leakiness of capillaries when you get a bee sting or a sprained ankle. It is believed that the endothelial cells can also contract and cause more leaking in response to signals. 

Use of exosomes, by decreasing inflammation, may decreased the vascular permeability. Also, the cells lining the capillaries might be reprogrammed or regenerated so as to be less leaky. However, since the benefits appear to be long-lived, a cell-based, structural change is favored over a change in the short-lived inflammatory milieu.

Oncotic pressure

This one takes us back to high school biology/chemistry. When a solute has more salt or particles in it and there is a membrane which allows water but not the solutes to pass, the saltier one swells up, remember? In our bodies, the primary determinant of oncotic pressure is a large protein called albumin which comprises about 50% of all the soluble proteins in our blood. Albumin also carries many other molecules like drugs, fatty acids, thyroid hormone, and ions.

When albumin is low, we get swollen all over. This can happen from decreased synthesis as in liver cirrhosis or from simple protein malnutrition known as kwashiorkor.

Albumin can also be low because it it leaking out of the kidney capillaries and being lost in the urine.

This can occur as a result of an acute injury or as a result of loss of kidney function generally.

I would suppose that since exosomes reprogram and regenerate vessels generally, they also do so in the liver cells making the albumin and in the glomerular capillaries that are supposed to prevent leaking albumin into the urine. Both mechanisms are possibly at work.

Hydrostatic forces:

The term, hydrostatic, refers to pressure of fluids and this can be influenced by many factors. Rarely, tumors compressing veins can cause a constriction of return flow, leading to lower extremity edema. Prolonged bed rest and immobilization can contribute to swelling as there isn’t the mechanical pumping of muscles wringing out the limbs.

As we age, the one-way valves in our veins age and become less competent (just as with the lymphatic one-way vessels). This is likely the biggest factor in leg swelling as the higher pressure allows for more leaking of fluid. See blog 28 for some dramatic venous improvement after just 10 days. I would place this at the top of the list for likely causes of improved leg swelling after exosomes.

Heart failure (or the inability to pump) also causes leg edema because of the failure of forward or circulatory movement of blood generally. Since the autonomic function and health of the heart is indirectly measurable by heart rate variability, the improvement of cardiac function may also be playing a role in reducing edema (see blog 2).

Since exosomes go everywhere and have powerful reprogramming and regenerative functions, I wouldn’t rule out their actions on all of the above mechanisms: hydrostatic, oncotic, vascular permeability, and lymphatic.

I am sure you know someone who has leg swelling and based on these results, perhaps they should consider IV exosome treatment which is quick (less than 40 seconds), painless, easy, and at least in these two cases, rapid and long-lasting in its benefits. 

Email me at to discuss.

Feel free to bookmark the following link to have all my exosomes videos at your fingertips!


Archived exosome blogs….Please read them all. 

N.B. On 2/29/2020 I changed my philosophy about keeping these blogs private. The archives up to blog 32 were appended to blogs that had yet to be created when the earlier ones were first written.

I still have voluntary ASMR. Mom’s arthritis is greatly improved.

I explain why I believe exosomes aren’t inert. An amazing case of an overnight in heart rate variability is presented.

A case of whiplash and traumatic brain injury improved after exosome use.

After exosome injection, two runners were able to return to running after limitations from tendinosis that plagued them for months (in the case of the 60-yo man, and years (in the case of the 53-yo woman)

In this blog, I discussed how complicated clinical medicine can be. Different treatment protocols, ambiguous results ethical dilemmas and strange phenomena like acquired coffee aversion are part of what make treating with exosomes so challenging.

Using my left foot as an example, I attempt to explain that while some exosome effects are immediate, others take time. Remodeling of damaged tissues is a complicated process. My foot is still scarred and probably will be for life.

A patient after dental exosome injection becomes pain free after 4 years of suffering.

I explain why lab testing of freshly thawed exosomes is SUPPOSED to come back as normal saline.

A nine-part comprehensive explanation of exosomes.

I interviewed the principal scientists of Kimera Labs and other experienced clinicians using exosomes

66-yo Deb B went from not being able to do one squat to 100 per day after exosome injection.

80-yo Doug describes in his video how much his knees have improved since getting exosome injections. He is reaching new athletic peaks with no signs of stopping.

My 82-yo mom underwent microneedling with exosomes with fantastic results. Most impressive was the absence of “downtime” from redness or bruising.

54-yo weightlifter with chronic pain from a rotator cuff tear shows remarkable improvement in just four days! He re-injured it at the gym so had to undergo a repeat shoulder injection

48-yo woman with severe face blindness experiences some improvement after nasal injections of exosomes. Her ability to remember new faces has improved permanently

I delivered two lectures in Hawaii. The first was about exosomes generally and the second is a password-protected video about clinical applications.

Three cases of middle-aged women reporting enhanced enjoyment and renewed capacity to read after nasal exosome therapy

Two cases of improved dental health presented. We discuss the hazards of EMF and the promising future of dental regenerative therapy

We discuss the notion of energy centers known as chakras and the fact that we are electrical beings

A case of improvement in Seborrheoic Dermatitis after microneedling with MSC exosomes is presented.

I explain how poor we are at assessing change and how attribution and recall bias play important roles

In the past year, there has been a lot of shifting loyalties in the exosome space resulting in a lot of rumor, innuendo, and bad press. With various parties trying to get each other in trouble with federal regulators, it is a treacherous business to be in.

I describe a case of an 86-yo woman whose chronic leg rash disappeared after improvement in her leg circulation

I use a car wash analogy to answer the question “how long do exosomes last?” The answer is it depends on how dirty and damaged the car is, how well you clean it, and how dirty you get it after washing.

I describe four cases of improvement of osteoartritic knees from my trip to Hawaii.

I explain the three definitions of placebo and why I believe most of the effects of exosomes cannot be attributed to the so-called placebo effect.

Some remarkable “soft signs” of exosome effects include itching (new nerves), twitching (new muscles), and heaviness (a healing FORCE).

Three amigos came to see me and all enjoyed benefits. The best was the 48-yo gentleman who had a dramatic improvements to his irritable bowel syndrome, varicose veins, and appearance.

I address the common observation from patients that exosomes seem “smart” or that they know where to go. In fact, I doubt this is true and that they are no smarter than player piano scrolls are good musicians.

I gave a lecture at the University of Hawaii with about 80 attendees. Around 10 of them were actual patients. Hear in their own words how exosomes helped them.

I describe two cases of improved leg swelling and explain what causes this common condition and how exosomes may be improving it.

We present an amazing case of overnight nerve regeneration after ultrasound-targeted exosome injections.



9 thoughts on “Exosomes 31: Leg Swelling”

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  5. It is quite interesting, and wonderful to see how quickly your patients often get results.

    I believe in this treatment, having taken a single dose of stem cells to help with healing Bell’s Palsy. My understanding is that Stem Cells, Exosomes, do hang out in the system longer than a few days.

    I wish you would tell us a little more about that. Thank you.

  6. I believe in this treatment, having taken a single dose of stem cells to help with healing Bell’s Palsy. Results were slower than what you have posted. But, it is my understanding is that the cells, do hang out in the system longer than a few days.

    Am I correct about that?

    1. That is controversial. Some allege that the the cells don’t last more than a few days because of immune incompatibility.
      In contrast, the effects of exosomes may be longer lived since they reprogram and cause changes in cells.

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